IFI7208.DT Õpikeskkonnad ja -võrgustikud 2018

Haridustehnoloogia ajalugu

29.09.2018 15:08 by Andrey B

Esimene teema.


 


I did not know much about the history of educational technology. Assumed that it is directly related to the development of computer technology and I can outline the stages of development roughly. After read the literature, I’ve learned enough new things for myself and can more confidently talk about the history of educational technology. As it was said before, the history of educational technologies is closely connected with the computer in education, which were available at various stages of development of progress in society. In particular, this concerned distance education. In the beginning, for this used the mail, and a little later, such progress stuff as radio and TV. At these stages, as well as at the stage of computer development, when Computer assisted instruction  focus was realized, implemented in the beginning of computer education as an individual tutor, providing instructions and feedback, without the participation of a teacher (Põldoja, 2016), appears and begins to use this model of distance learning pedagogy, as a Cognitive-Behaviorist. For me, it’s a little difficult to classify pedagogical directions clearly, because pedagogy is directed with psychology and therefore for me it is not entirely understandable, but I can say that the main thrust of the Cognitive-Behavior model was the individualization of learning, during which students were given great freedom, and the main the interaction was one-on-one. (Anderson, T., & Dron, J., 2011)

An important role in the development of educational technologies is the emergence of the first personal computer Macintosh. Computers are becoming more accessible. They are no longer a luxury, but rather a necessity for many social institutions. Studies are under way, during which a significant computer education is proved (Molnar, 1997). Approximately at this time, Socio-constructivist pedagogy is emerging, where the main focus of instruction is on group interaction of individuals, as well as the main opportunities for receiving distance forums and discussions. Technology for websites. (Anderson, T., & Dron, J., 2011) The development of this technology is associated with the development of the Internet. This technology makes it possible to increase access both to interpersonal interaction and to get knowledge without leaving home. The development of this technology gave rise to the so-called stages as web-learning and e-learning (Põldoja, 2016). Further development of Web technologies and its transition to Web 2.0. The difference between the Web and Web 2.0 is the involvement of users themselves in the process of developing and filling resources. This is a rethinking of the process of organizing and implementing the process of resource management. Web 2.0 resources are more suited to users’ needs and accordingly develop in the direction in which the majority wants to move. (O’Reilly, T., Sept. 30). It is in the era of Web 2.0 development that an electronic educational environment is being formed that can have access to education by means of technology and have a full-fledged education by means of this medium, and not just the traditional system. It is at the stage of development of Web 2.0 that such a direction as Connectivism in pedagogics. (Anderson, T., & Dron, J., 2011). The main feature of this direction is the use of technology to achieve educational goals. Personally for me, this is an interesting topic to study, because it covers the learning process in a modern distance learning environment. Is it possible that this direction of pedagogy is not entirely correct, due to the minimization of the role of the teacher in the education system, and also diminishing the role of contact interaction. Although, perhaps, in modern realities, this may really not be of such importance for education. Based on all of the above, I can say that in my opinion, the main factors that play a role in the development of the use of computers in education:

1) Availability of computers and technical devices, as well as their minimization.

2) The emergence and development of a graphical interface (+ visualization)

3) Multimedia

4) Development of networks (including the Internet network)

5) Development of Web technologies

6) Openness of resources

Since the beginning of my education (primary school), up to the current stage of education (magistracy), it has already been 18 years and during this time it is possible to track how educational technologies were introduced and used in the education system in Russia. In primary school (2000-2005), the technologies were used at a minimum, mainly multimedia presentations or video clips. There was already more active interaction in the middle school, for example, computer simulators were used, Internet was more actively used, and CD / DVDs with educational material. In high school it was about the same as in high school, but with a rare using of digital educational resources. At the University, such environments as Moodle, various educational resources, online conferences, web blogs, etc. were already actively used.


The least I knew from the history of educational technology about the tools that were used at various stages of development. I did not know the stages clearly. Most of all I’m interested in just distance learning, as well as techology – enhanced learning, in my opinion, at the moment, in the age of information technology, this is one of the preferred directions for the development of the modern education system. It is very interesting, what will be the next stage of the computer in education.


Viited:


Molnar, A. (1997). Computers in Education: A Brief History. The Journal. Loetud aadressil http://thejournal.com/Articles/1997/06/01/Computers-in-Education-A-Brief-History.aspx


Anderson, T., & Dron, J. (2011). Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 12(3), 80–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v12i3.890


Leinonen, T. (2010). Designing Learning Tools: Methodological Insights. Helsinki: Aalto University School of Art and Design. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-60-0032-9


O’Reilly, T. (2005, September 30). What Is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software. Loetud aadressil http://oreilly.com/web2/archive/what-is-web-20.html


Põldoja, H. (2016). The Structure and Components for the Open Education Ecosystem: Constructive Design Research of Online Learning Tools. Helsinki: Aalto University. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-60-6993-7

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